Estudo sobre acesso e permanência no mercado de trabalho de pessoas com deficiência intelectual
Borges, Karla Janaine de Moraes
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The inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities in the labor market, according to official data, has increased in recent years. Compared to other people with disabilities, people with intellectual disabilities are less hired. In Brazil, the Federal Constitution, the Quota Law, the Apprentice Law and the Brazilian Inclusion Law (Statute of Persons with Disabilities) guarantee this public access to formal work. However, there are obstacles for them to insert and stay at work. In the case of people with intellectual disabilities, low levels of education, skills and productivity as well as dependence on support are among the difficulties claimed by companies. However, there are people who have been able to stay at work, and it is important to know how this experience has been. Therefore, this study aims to know and analyze behaviors and attitudes of people with intellectual disabilities, their legal guardian, leaders and teachers of qualification courses for insertion and permanence in the labor market. The research instruments were four semi-structured interview scripts, being one for each group of participants: person with intellectual disability, parents / legal guardians, leaders and teachers of the qualification courses. It was also applied to legal guardians and people with intellectual disabilities, the Support Intensity Scale - SIS. The data analysis of the interviews was qualitative, using the software ATLAS.ti and, quantitative, for the SIS Support Intensity Scale. The results showed that people with intellectual disabilities developed behaviors and attitudes throughout their lives, which were improved by inserting themselves in companies, and that, in turn, favored the development of their autonomy, contributing to their insertion and maintenance of employment. The legal guardians encouraged these people, the leaders developed strategies to adapt the work role to the person with intellectual disability and the teachers pointed out that there is a need for course adaptations to meet the demands of people with disabilities and companies. This research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities can succeed in entering and maintaining their jobs if they can develop behaviors, attitudes and autonomy to meet the needs imposed by work. It is hoped that this study can contribute to Special Education in the development of teaching programs for people with intellectual disabilities with proposals for lifelong learning, as well as for the guidance of legal guardians, leaders and qualification courses for insertion in the labor market.
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