A fala e a escrita de si na Educação de Jovens e Adultos: potencialidades das Situações Desencadeadoras de Aprendizagem no desenvolvimento da competência linguística
Marques, Janaina de Cassia Siqueira
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Youth and Adult Education (EJA) represents a new opportunity for people who, from an early age, were urged to abandon their studies to work, often in unfavorable conditions, resulting in gaps in their school education. In a complex and society that is centered on writing, returning to school is also a challenge, considering the peculiarities of this teaching modality in view of the students' learning needs. Faced with this challenge, learning the mother tongue is one of the most pressing needs of EJA students, since the lack in this area constitutes a strong factor of discrimination and social exclusion. In this scenario, the present study aims to analyze the manifestations of oral and written language of EJA students in the school context, based on the production of autobiographical narrations. The research, of a qualitative nature, seeks to answer the question: "What are the potentialities of Triggering Learning Situations to develop the linguistic competence of students of Youth and Adult Education through speaking and writing themselves?" In this direction, it was necessary to understand the literacy processes, as well as the dialogical and ideological relations present in the students' language manifestations, representing the challenges for the teaching-learning process of the Portuguese language. Founded on Leontiev's theory of activity (1903-1979), guided by the dialogic processes and the construction of knowledge that the school allows subjects, according to the assumptions of Paulo Freire (1921-1997), the study considers the autobiographical narrative text as a facilitator of dialogue / reflection of the lived reality and the improvement of writing. The research, of a participatory nature, has as methodological basis the analysis by isolates, in order to reflect how oral and reading contribute to the meaning processes of the speeches that circulate in the classroom and to understand how language can be an instrument of communication and expression of thoughts and reflection on reality. When analyzing the data, we seek to observe the active construction of knowledge by students and the interlocution between theory and practice in Youth and Adult education. The stages of development of the research were organized through a sequence of activities aimed at the production of autobiographical narrative texts with EJA students, involving aspects of orality, writing and reading. Recorded through videos, audios and photographs, the research showed the relevance of the texts under analysis for the learning of the mother tongue, as the students reported having acquired a greater perception of the reality they experienced and the Portuguese language, establishing relations between these two dimensions. As the study revealed, the experience of writing - mediated by the reflection of the reality of oneself and the world - can contribute to the appreciation of the students' stories and knowledge, acting as a stimulus in the search for new knowledge. It was found that the existence of effective teachers to attend this modality and to highlight the value of autobiographical narrative texts as a methodological resource for the classes of EJA, in addition to the possibility of appropriation of formal knowledge, and that can contribute, from a perspective dialogical and humanizing education, as a tool for reconstructing lived paths and (re) planning their life projects.
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