Efeitos sociais do implante coclear: uma revisão sistemática
Silva, Josana Carla Gomes da
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Introduction: Cochlear implant (CI) is indicated for lingual post adults who presents severe or bilateral deep sensorineural hearing loss, suitable motivation of the individual for the use of the implant and for the process of speech-language rehabilitation. For pre-lingual adults, the criterion differs, since the patient is required to have established linguistic code and adequately rehabilitated by the oral method. There are divergences regarding CI, while the medical community hold CI as the most assertive means of treating hearing impairment so that these individuals may have and / or resolve their social and professional lives in order to interact with listeners and be independent, being able to have a better social insertion due to their improved hearing capacity and speech comprehension, in contrast the deaf community is contrary to believe that their identity is characterized by the use of the Brazilian sign language - Libras and to consider the CI a retrocession before the motions in favor of the recognition of Libras. Objective: to investigate the scientific production in the Brazilian context about the social effects of cochlear implant in the life of the individual. Method: This research used the methodology of the Systematic Review, which sought to review bibliographies and delineate a reflective and comprehensive work, as well to make an interdisciplinary historical-critical analysis of the theme. This type of research is configured as a process of meeting, critical and synthetic evaluation of results from multiple studies. Results: The analysis allowed to consider that the social effects in the life of the implanted patient, resulting of CI, can be negative when related to the physical aspect of the external device, resulting in shame, inferiority and insecurity. It also shows that people who did the cochlear implant due to post-lingual deafness demonstrated positive social effects such as gaining self-confidence and security in everyday communication situations and social interactions. Psychosocial aspects and quality of life after implantation were not significantly addressed in the studies analyzed. It is important to emphasize that to have a good adaptation after the procedure, these phenomena need to be studied to evaluate which methodologies can be used for negative effects to be mitigated and how they affect the life of the implanted person. Considerations: From the analysis of the studies the hypothesis was raised that the social effects in the person's life implanted because of the cochlear implant are distinct in adolescents and adults. The hypothesis is since the studies carried out with adolescent participants had negative results, possibly because of the concern related to self-image, body changes, dating and social interactions. From this systematic review the study observed that it is necessary to investigate these effects more to understand how they affect the quality of life of the implanted person and how this can interfere in their life. The study suggests that a systematic review on the topic be carried out at an international level with the purpose of analyzing the scientific production in the area.
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