Percepção e interação de comunidades caiçaras do complexo estuarino-lagunar de Iguape-Cananéia, SP, Brasil, com tartarugas marinhas
Gusmão, Juliana São Pedro
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The Iguape-Cananéia Estuarine-Lagoon Complex has been described as an area for feeding and development of young sea turtles of the Chelonia mydas (green sea turtle) species, besides having recorded the incidence of other marine turtle species present at the Brazilian coast (Caretta caretta, Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Eretmochelys imbricata). The region also presents several caiçara (population from coastal regions) nucleuses which have small-scale fishing as their main source of income, making important to analyze existing interactions between fishermen and sea turtles. The objective of the present study was to describe the interaction of the caiçara communities of Pedrinhas and Pontal de Leste with sea turtles, and the interaction between sea turtles and the artisanal gillnetting, from the fishermen s perspective. Field researches were performed using semi-structured interviews via Snow Ball technique, enabling the identification of the key informers by their peer s recognition. The results showed that the caiçara community of Pontal de Leste, more isolated from the urban centers and having fishing as exclusive activity, presented greater presence of sea turtles in its culture, as well as higher nutritional dependency from sea turtle meat when climate conditions render fishing impossible for long periods of time. At the Pedrinhas community, as it is closer to urban centers and as it has alternative income activities due to tourism, the presence of the sea turtle in the local culture resides mainly at the memories of the older interviewed community members. In both communities knowledge gaps were verified, which could be clarified with educational actions, and the importance of gillnetting for the caiçara and the negative impact it may cause to sea turtles were also verified, being thus vital, the execution of new studies which shall enable the understanding of the magnitude of such interaction. The results obtained aim at generating information for conservation plans so as to minimize the mortality of sea turtles, protecting cultural practices of such communities; thereby, educational activities and management guidelines were proposed, aiming at integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies with the conduct of the local traditional community.