Comunidades planctônicas e qualidade da água em reservatórios tropicais urbanos com diferentes graus de trofia
Almeida, Viviane Lúcia dos Santos
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The influence of temporal and spatial gradients on the physical and chemical variables, phyto- and zooplanktonic communities were evaluated in two shallow urban reservoirs with different trophic state from Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. Monthly samples were taken during a complete hydrological cycle (March 2008 to February 2009), considering a point of study in the Prata reservoir and two points in the Apipucos reservoir, always between 08:30 and 11:00. Biological indexes for planktonic communities were used to understand better the effect of water quality conditions on biota. High levels of eutrophication were observed in the Apipucos reservoir. In the Prata oligotrophic reservoir, the pH was ever considered acid. The values reported for physical and chemical variables and chlorophyll a reflected the trophic state of each system. Higher values for richness, diversity, density and biomass of plankton communities were recorded in the Apipucos reservoir, especially for phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton evenness was higher in the Prata reservoir, while for zooplankton the values obtained in both reservoirs were very similar. Rainfall governed the temporal dynamics of the analyzed variables, and the seasonal variation exerted great influence, especially in the Apipucos reservoir. Aquatic macrophytes seeming to exert a prominent role in the ecological processes in the studied environments. In general, vertical homogeneity of water column was evidenced in both reservoirs, probably caused by the wind action. In Apipucos reservoir, the point 2 showing the higher phosphate nutrient levels and more severe deterioration conditions of water quality, in relation to point 1. Despite the low densities recorded for the toxic cyanobacteria species present in the Prata reservoir (Dolichospermum sp. Geitlerinema amphibium and Lyngbya spp.) it is highlighted the need for a periodic monitoring of population development of these organisms. It is suggested that the zooplankton community do not exerts significant grazing pressure on phytoplankton in both reservoirs, indicating the predominance of the bottom-up on the top-down effect in the control of planktonic populations. The biological indexes for planktonic communities were effectives in assessing water quality in both reservoirs, emphasizing the potencial of these organisms in the characterization of environmental conditions of aquatic systems. Overall, the hypotheses tested were confirmed, especially regarding the influence of trophic state on the physical and chemical variables, composition, diversity and structure of phytoand zooplankton. However, it is noteworthy that seasonality had greater influence in the Apipucos eutrophic reservoir, while in the Prata reservoir only few variables presenting a significative seasonal variation.