Cobertura vegetal como parâmetro da qualidade ambiental do Município de São Carlos, SP
Bertini, Marco Antonio
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The process of ecosystem degradation is intensifying, causing changes in the flow of services provided by them, compromising the natural balance, environmental quality and welfare of society. In this perspective, this study proposed in the first chapter, the characterization of areas with vegetation cover in São Carlos, SP, in three scales: the territory of the municipality, the two units of water management and the ten sub-basins Guabirobas, Mogi Guacu, Araras, Cabaceiras, Quilombo, Chibarro, Monjolinho, Pântano, Jacaré-Guaçu e Feijão, by overlapping letters and visual interpretation of satellite images. The territory of the municipality of São Carlos has 28% of its total area with vegetation cover, and 21.6% is in permanent preservation areas (APPs) and of these, 51% are vegetated. Regarding the sources, 40% are protected by vegetation. The indicators show good environmental quality in the Jacaré-Guaçu sub-basin, while the sub-basins of Monjolinho and Mogi-Guaçu have unsatisfactory levels of vegetation cover. The second chapter diagnosed public green areas in the urban area and analyzed their administrative regions, and the percentage of public green areas (PAVP) and the index of public green areas (IAVP) as parameters. We obtained the index of 18,85 m2 of public green areas per inhabitant, characterized as satisfactory when compared to 15m2/inhabitant index suggested by the Brazilian Society of Urban Forestry. However, when regions were analyzed individually arise concern values (lower than desired). The Genebrino method, applied to PAVP and IAVP, made a commendable goal above 40% for urban environmental quality. Given the scenario presented, we proceeded to survey the environmental initiatives of government, ONGs and private agencies to minimize the problems encountered. We found that maintaining ecosystem functions and services provided by areas with vegetation cover in the period from 1977 to 2014, resulted from planting of 58,460 seedling trees, which was the most played in the city. This study, involving the sub-basins and urban perimeter, shows the importance of maintaining the functions and ecosystem services provided by native vegetation areas and amounts calculated for such services as possible to simulate the municipality loses withdraws the vegetation cover or still spend much to get her back.