Macroinvertebrados em córregos da região da Mata Atlântica (Sudeste do Brasil) : influência da cultivo de banana
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The integrity of aquatic ecosystems has been compromised by innumerable anthropogenic actions, for example, extensive agriculture that has been producing alterations in water quality and aquatic community characteristics. Much is known about annual plantations as sugar cane, soybeans, corn, but little information is available about some perennial plantations in the tropical areas. In this study we assess the influence of the banana plantation on macroinvertebrate communities in low-order streams in Southeastern Brazil. The samplings were carried out 10 streams in the State of São Paulo, of which, five located in areas of banana s culture and five in forested areas. In each stream, physical and chemical variables as well as concentrations of bioavailable metals in the sediment (Zn, Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mg, Pb, Ni) were measured. Macroinvertebrates were simultaneously collected with both a D-net, and with Surber samplers. The concentrations of metals were higher in the sediment of streams in the banana plantations sites when compared with streams in forested areas. Of the 4427 aquatic macroinvertebrates collected, 61 families were found, 51 in forested streams and 49 in the banana plantation sites. Gripopterygidae, Perlidae, Leptophlebiidae, Leptoceridae, Helicopsychidae, and Palaemonidae were more abundant in forested streams, while Hydropsychidae, Chironomidae and Baetidae were more abundant in the streams in the banana plantations. Macroinvertebrate diversity, richness, and evenness indexes responded to land use characteristics; the most forested streams sustains the highest community diversity. NMDS ordination applied to the fauna data of all streams also evidenced the separation between forested streams and banana plantations streams. Mantel and partial Mantel tests indicated high correlation between the community structure and land uses and geographic distances. Therefore, this agricultural activity seems to influence the structure of macroinvertebrate communities in low order streams in the Atlantic Forest region.