Potencial fitotóxico de Serjania lethalis A. St-Hil
Pereira, Viviane de Cassia
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The study of the phytotoxic potential of species of the Cerrado has been of great interest to researchers seeking in nature sources of substances with properties similar to those of synthetic herbicides. Serjania lethalis A. St- Hil. is a liana found in the cerrado. This is a species with known properties and rich in compounds such as saponins and catechins, with great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This research aimed to verify the phytotoxic potential of young and mature leaves aqueous extracts of S. lethalis primarily on germination and seedling growth of grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.), which were added aqueous extracts of young and mature leaves on seeds and seedlings of guinea grass in concentrations of 10, 7.5, 5.0 and 2.5%. After this, we evaluated their effect on germination and growth variables. The results indicate that the aqueous extracts interfere with seed germination and seedling growth, but the maturation of leaves did not produce very different results for most of the variables analyzed. Fractions of aqueous and ethanolic extracts were tested on the growth of wheat coleoptile (Triticum aestivum L).In this bioassay, fractions from ethanol and aqueous extracts, obtained by column chromatography, were tested at three different concentrations (0.8, 0.4 and 0.2 mg.mL-1). It has been found that certain fractions were presented as phytotoxic, because they inhibited the growth of coleoptiles. Later, these fractions were tested about the growth of seedlings of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), at the same concentrations, and the results showed that roots and aerial parts of seedlings had his grow the reduced. Thus, it was decided to verify such changes at the cellular level. Then the same fractions were tested about the growth of cells of metaxylem sesame (Sesamum indicum). Results showed significant reductions in the length of the cells compared to control treatment. The active fractions were fractionated by medium pressure liquid chromatography in order to isolate substances with potential phytotoxicity. Analysis of the active fractions led to the identification of three dimeric procyanidins and polymeric procyanidins (condensed tannins), and a procyanidin unregistered in the literature. It should be noted that the active substances identified were found in young leaves. To identify the substances it was used a Mass Spectrometer and a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance equipment. It was also performed an extraction of saponins from the leaves, roots and stems of S.lethalis. Therefore, it was used methanol and water, and then it was performed a pre-purification, using the technique of Solid Phase Extraction, where eluents methanol and water were used in different proportions. The fractions obtained were analyzed through a Mass Spectrometer. It was tested the phytotoxic potential of extracted saponins, throught a bioassay of coleoptile wheat growth at concentrations 0.8, 0.4 and 0.2 mg. mL-1. It was found that saponins inhibited the growth of coleoptiles, proving its phytotoxic property. This work proved the phytotoxicity of the species S. lethalis. It was also possible to identify a procyanidin present in the ethanol extract of young leaves, with no record in the literature.