Caracterização da produção científica publicada na biblioteca Scielo sobre acidentes de trabalho com exposição a material biológico
Dias, Regina Célia
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Health personal are constantly exposed to biological hazards by the nature of their work, which involves the use of sharps and contact with body fluids. Exposure involving biological materials is a serious event by the potential contamination that exposes professionals, subject to diseases such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and AIDS. Knowing the factors related to the occurrence of these events enables the development of preventive actions. This study is an integrative review of the literature to characterize the scientific literature on the subject and identify prevention strategies recommended in studies published in the SciELO Brazil. We used the keywords "Accidents, Occupational ", "Occupational Risks ", "Occupational Exposure ", "Exposure to Biological Agents ", "Needlestick Injuries", Universal Precautions ", "Health Personnel ", "Nursing" and "Nurses' Aides ". The 54 selected articles were read in full by completing a roadmap for data collection. The data were entered into Microsoft Excel for further characterization and analysis. The Revista Latino Americana de Enfermagem published the most articles on the subject, 72% of articles were published between 2004 to 2008, 74% of studies were conducted in the Southeast, 59% of the state of Sao Paulo. The occupation was the most studied of nursing workers. Approximately 75% of the studies were descriptive according to their objectives and 61% as a quantitative approach, 7% were case-control studies, 9% of studies of action research, 15% review studies, 19% prevalence and 50% of studies survey collecting information on knowledge, perceptions, opinions and attitudes of the people, through interviews and / or self-administered questionnaires. More than a third of the studies characterize the accident, the occupations most affected, the circumstances of the accident and its evolution. Less than 20% address the risks faced by professionals in their workplace and 17% focuses on the consequences of the accident and post-exposure. Accidents are not only related to individual risk factors or protection. Accidents are also influenced by the environment where workers are inserted and the organizational structure of the institution. The articles of prevention of occupational accidents with exposure to biological material discuss the adhesion of measures Protection Standard, hepatitis B vaccination, biosecurity education courses in health and actions to minimize the occurrence of accidents. The most cited recommendations for prevention of accidents with biological material were: continuing education, adoption of standard precaution measures, worker participation in the discussion of the risks, action planning based on the evaluation of working conditions and adoption of safety devices. Only 2 articles (4%) investigate the causes of the accident after its occurrence. Studies of this kind are important and need to be encouraged, as it allows the origin of the accident and from there to propose preventive measures.