Influência de dois programas distintos de atividade física sobre variáveis fisiológicas, antropométricas e de capacidades físicas, em pessoas com idade superior a 50 anos
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This study aimed to compare the effects of a conventional program of exercises in groups with a program of resistance exercises, with respect to the following variables: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), flexibility, handgrip strength and strength of lower limbs in knee extension. A total of 60 individuals participated in the present investigation, residents of São Carlos, of both sexes and aged over 50 years. The subjects were sampled by convenience and were divided into three groups: Control Group (GC), composed of 22 people who doesn t were engaged in any monitored and supervised physical activity, Group A (GA) formed by 21 subjects who underwent a program of physical activity in a conventional group, and Group B (GB) consisting of 22 individuals who participated in a program of resistance exercises. The measurements were made using a stethoscope and blood pressure gauges for measuring the BP, an anthropometric scale for measuring weight and height, a tape measure to check the CA, Bank of Wells for flexibility, and a manual dynamometer and isokinetic dynamometer to measure the handgrip muscular strength and knee extension, respectively. All subjects underwent an initial evaluation that consisted of: history, blood pressure measurement, body mass index calculation, measurement of CA, flexibility and muscle strength. Having been assessed, the volunteers in Group A began a program of exercises in the conventional group, which aimed to develop physical abilities such as flexibility, aerobic endurance, muscular strength and coordinating skills involving balance, agility and pace. This program was performed three times per week, each session lasting 50 to 55 minutes. The volunteers in Group B participated in a program of physical resistance exercises. The machines were the leg press, calf, back extension, abdominal, bench Press and rowing, and were used according to the periodicity of the training, with a frequency of three times per week and duration of 50 minutes per session. New measures were taken after intervals of three and six months as from the initial assessment of all groups. The statistical analysis was performed by way of a nonparametric analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis, Friedmam test, Wilcoxson test and Friedmam test replicated to two factors. As a result it was possible to observe a significant reduction in the SBP, DBP and BMI in Group B, significant reduction of WC in Groups A and B, increase in muscle handgrip strength after three months in Group A and after six months in Group B, significant increase in flexibility in both Groups A and B and significant reduction in strength in the knee extension at 60°/sec in Group A. Thus it was concluded that for all the variables, except for the strength of knee extension, at least one of the groups that underwent intervention showed significant improvements when compared to the control group. When the two programs were compared, the Geriatric Revitalization program was more effective for the variables of handgrip force and knee extension at 60º/sec. and at 180°/sec., while the program of resistance exercises generated better responses for SBP, DBP, BMI and WC.