Comportamento reprodutivo de espécies de Trypargilum e análises de parentesco genético intranidal e genética de populações de Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) albitarse (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae)
Bergamaschi, Antônio Carlos Bragato
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The genus Trypoxylon consists of solitary wasps that build mud nests or nest in preexisting cavities, which brood cells positioned linearly are stored with paralyzed spiders. The male in species of the subgenus Trypargilum presents a singular behavior among Hymenoptera, playing the role of guard in active nests, which guarantees repeated copulations with the partner that interacts, especially before oviposition. It is expected that this behavior increases the chances of reproductive success of the guarding male. However, the constant presence of satellite males in nesting areas, associated to reports obtained in behavioral studies that pointed the receptivity of females assisted by a guarding male to extra-pair copulations, lay doubts in the effectiveness of reproductive tactics adopted by the guard. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of natural history of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) species, through behavioral records, genetic analyzes of intranidal relatedness and analyzes of diversity and population structure. The nesting behavior of Trypoxylon agamemnon, Trypoxylon aurifrons and Trypoxylon nitidum in trap nests was recorded, mainly focusing on the interaction between the guarding male and the nesting female, beyond the role of the satellite male, who was constantly positioned near active nests. Genetic analysis of intranidal relatedness using species-specific microsatellite loci for Trypoxylon albitarse indicated that this species has a predominantly monogamous mating system, although extra-pair copulations have been detected. Since little is known about the population genetics of this group of wasps, we also present data from the genetic diversity and structure of five populations of T. albitarse, sampled in four states in Brazil, which indicated high levels of genetic diversity and significantly population structure.