Análise da diversidade e estrutura genético-populacional de Didelphis albiventris no Parque Estadual Morro do Diabo e fragmentos de Mata Atlântica adjacentes.
Fischer, Eliana Michelle Paviotti
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The destruction of ecosystems and their fragmentation are major environmental problems, being biodiversity conservation one of biggest challenges today .These processes result in the reduction and isolation of populations, threatening the fauna and flora, since in this situation as their populations become more susceptible to negative effects caused by a series of environmental, demographic and genetic factors. Therefore, is necessary to consider the biodiversity in all its levels, from the genetic level, to the species and ecosystem for effective actions in conservation. To assist in conservation programs, conservation genetics uses molecular methods in studies of patterns of genetic variation, indicating not only which species deserve greater efforts in conservation, but also contributing to the assessment of the variability of a population. This study evaluated the genetic diversity and structure of the marsupial Didelphis albiventris at the Morro do Diabo State Park and six adjacent forest fragments. We utilize a set of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci developed for the specie D. virginiana, for a total of 120 individuals sampled. The results indicated high levels of genetic diversity, with values equal to 10,87 alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity of 0,823 and heterozygosity expected of 0,798. We did not detect presence of null alleles. The average value of Fis was -0,033 and all loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Analyses on the population structure through calculations of FST indicated a slight structure in the populations sampled, which was corroborated by the program STRUCTURE, which indicated the existence of four populations. Given these results, we believe that in the area sampled, D. albiventris constitutes a metapopulation.