Ensino de leitura com diferentes treinos discriminativos a aprendizes com deficiência intelectual
Gomes, Máyra Laís de Carvalho
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This study has its origins in the search for teaching reading procedures that meet the needs of all of the apprentices, based on different discriminative problems for the construction of the network of relationships between stimuli and between stimuli and responses that make up the repertoire of reading. Study 1 was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching procedures with different discrimination trainings based on specific teaching conditions simple discrimination, simple discrimination with differential and specific reinforcement, and conditional discrimination and untreated condition (control) eight isolated words. Each discriminative training applied differently for each individual, was scheduled involving a pair of three simple syllable words: girl (menina) and mustache (bigode), salad (salada) and drawer (gaveta), popcorn (pipoca) and horse (cavalo), window (janela) and tomato (tomate). This study was held in a special school with 12 learners with intellectual disabilities. We tested the formation of classes between the pictures and printed words and the reading of teaching and generalization words. We used a randomized alternated treatment between teaching conditions that alternated the different workouts in a quickly and balanced way. The participants were exposed to a specific sequence of teaching so as to minimize the effect of the sequence itself and only five learners achieved a significant learning on the proposed procedure. The same procedure was replicated for four more typically developing children with reading difficulties and were obtained similar learning outcomes. Then the Study 2 was held with the proposal to determine the influence of progressively teaching prior repertoires for the establishment of classes of stimuli and, consequently, for the skills of reading, from the range of learning criteria. We selected two of the students of the last study with the lowest input relational repertoires. The identity relations were taught between stimuli, matching to sample (conditional discrimination), identity constructed response, naming of pictures and echoic behavior to them. Both learners had learned relational relations between pictures to printed words, and printed words to pictures and its reading. It was argued, therefore, that the alternated sequence of instruction in Study 1 was not enough in isolation to control the effectiveness of each training condition, and that Study 2 verified the effectiveness of teaching basic skills for expanding the repertoire of reading.