Aplicação das técnicas espectroscópicas e quimiométricas no estudo do controle de qualidade das drogas vegetais: embaúba, malva e ginseng brasileiro
Leão, Katyúscya Veloso
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In the last few years the phytotherapy has emerged as a drug form well accepted and accessible, causing the increase in demand for drugs based on plants throughout the world, becoming an attraction for the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore the investment in quality control have become of extreme importance to ensure safety and efficacy of products. Among many herbal drugs available on the market, this study evaluated commercial samples of embaúba, Brazilian ginseng and mallow, using NMR spectroscopic techniques, 1H NMR in solution, HRMAS 1H and IR allied to chemometric methods. For commercial samples of embaúba, observed by chemometric analysis of data obtained by 1H NMR in solution and IR, most commercial samples were grouped with the species Cecropia glaziovii. By 1H NMR in solution and 2D experiments and comparisons with literature data, it was possible the identification of α-glucose e β-glucose, β-frutofuranose and β-frutopyranose, valine, alanine, threonina, 4-aminobutanoic acid, glutamine and caffeoylquinic acid. For commercial samples of Brazilian ginseng, analyzed by the three techniques, it was observed that most commercial samples were grouped with the species Pfaffia glomerata and by 1H NMR in solution it was possible to identify valine, alanine, threonine and 4-aminobutanoic acid and the sugars: sucrose, α-glucose e α-glucose. For commercial samples of mallow two adulterated samples were detected and grouping of most commercial samples with specie Sida cordifolia. By NMR in solution it was possible to identify valine, threonine, alanine, sucrose, α-glucose and β-glucose, 4-aminobutanoic acid and the ephedrine compound in the aqueous extract of specie Sida cordifofia and in aqueous extract the of specie Malva silvestris valine, threonine, alanine and the malvone A compound were identified. It was found that NMR techniques combined with chemometrics where more efficient than infrared, demonstrating a great potential for quality control, enabling the evaluation of the chemical profile of a extract vegetable as a whole and highlighting the compounds with a greater contribution to the discrimination of species and the indication of a chemical marker.