Fundamentos da teoria histórico-cultural para a compreensão do desenvolvimento do pensamento conceitual de crianças de 4 a 6 anos
Garay González, Abel Gustavo
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This work aimed at systematizing both theoretical and methodological principles required to understand the development and formation of conceptual thinking in children (4 to 6 years old) from Early Childhood Education using the Historic- Cultural Psychology theory. The research was developed using bibliographic qualitative methodology (theoretical-conceptual-explanatory) to analyze two main sources: works from classic Historic-Cultural Psychology’s authors and their disciples (primary source); works from authors that interpret the classics and works from contemporary researchers conducting theoretic-conceptual and experimental studies (secondary source). The analyzed bibliographic material is available at the Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar) and Facultad de Psicología de la Universidad de La Habana’s libraries – the first located in Brazil and the second in Cuba. It was sought to identify the Historic-Cultural Psychology’s main principles for the development of the conceptual thinking in children and make a defense of its importance during the Early Childhood Education. The education was characterized as unity of analysis and shown as the driving force behind the cognitive and affective development in 4 to 6 years old children. A mediated activity was conducted with the children in order to show the process of development for the Higher Mental Functions, specifically the conceptual thinking, which appears first in the social level (interpsychic). The same activity, in the psychological level, transforms the children’s psyche (intrapsychic) in a dialectical process of appropriation and objectification characterized by adult-infant communication. Therefore, children go from an individuality in a “by itself” level to the “to itself”, more advanced. It is sustained that the effectiveness of an education based on the dialectical logic is extremely significant for the learning because it is a social shared practice that paves the way for appropriating signs and symbols. It also makes possible the use of “cultural tools” to mediate the conceptual thinking development. Thus, the essence of the education is to produce the act of thinking and integrate the practical, emotional, relational and cognitive aspects of a child, not enhancing the act of memorization as it occurs with an education based on the empirical thinking. Hence, this work tried to show that the education – supported by the theoretical and methodological approaches presented by the study – is the driving force that propels the conceptual thinking development in children. Education, by the Historic-Cultural Psychology, enhance the conceptual thinking, an essential premise for developing a personality and the development of the affective and cognitive areas of children from Early Childhood Education.