Atributos biológicos da qualidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de cultivo do cafeeiro
Guimarães, Nathalia de França
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The fauna invertebrate epigeic, as well as biomass and microbial activity are shown efficient indicator of soil quality, because they have high sensitivity to changes in the environment. The sensitivity of these biological attributes of the soil plays a fundamental role in the assessment of anthropogenic activities, with a tool to monitor soil quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate the quality of the soil, using as biomarkers to epigeic invertebrate fauna, biomass and microbial activity in different coffee cultivation systems. The study was conducted in 2015 at a private estate in the municipality of Santo Antônio do Jardim, SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plot in time, with five repetitions. The treatments consisted of three coffee cultivation systems and two witnesses areas: 1) Coffee in consortium with tree and Urochloa cv. decumbens species; 2) Coffee in consortium with Urochloa cv. decumbens; 3) Coffee in exclusive culture; 4) area with ground fallow and 5) native vegetation fragment. The bioindicators were evaluated in two periods, the first in April and the second in July 2015. To evaluate the epigeica invertebrate fauna were installed in the center of each area five pitfall traps ("pitfall"), totaling 25 traps. The characterization of epigeica invertebrate animals was made based on the taxonomic composition (%); density (number of individuals); richness (number of groups); Shannon diversity index; evenness index of Pielou. The microbial biomass was evaluated by collecting soil samples at depth 0,0 to 0,10 m. The variables evaluated were: microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, microbial quotient and soil organic carbon. It was evaluated also the accumulation of litter (t ha-1) and soil moisture (kg kg- 1). The collection dates only influenced epigeic invertebrate fauna. As for the vii coffee cultivation systems and witnesses influenced all biological attributes of soil quality in this study. The native vegetation fragment system shows the more diverse and more complex plant, and favoured the development of biological attributes soil quality (abundance of organisms on frequency of taxonomic groups, microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and microbial quotient), followed by Coffee wooded and Urochloa cv. decumbens, fallow, Coffee intercropped with Urochloa cv. decumbens, Coffee in exclusive culture.