Efeito de rochagem, vinhaça e plantas de cobertura no desenvolvimento do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) e em atributos químicos do solo
Souza, Maicon Douglas Bispo De
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The Brazilian territory is constituted mostly by nutrient-poor soils. To keep the Brazilian agricultural activity is necessary to import and apply high amounts of fertilizers, which tends to aggravate the imbalance in the trade balance. Thus, rocks containing reasonable amounts of nutrients may be an alternative to supply the essential elements for agricultural use. But this practice has limitations, including the slow solubilization of the minerals present in the rock, which limits the release of nutrient amounts required by plants, especially the short cycle. The study aimed to evaluate changes in the chemical attributes of an Oxisol, in which the bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) occurred in succession to cover crops and the application of vinasse and remineralizer (basalt powder). The essay was conducted in a greenhouse and the experimental design was a randomized block in a factorial scheme 4x4x2, with three replications, and sampling in four times (0, 45, 90 and 110 days). Four doses of basalt powder (0, 2, 4 and 8 t ha-1) and two doses of vinasse (0 m3 ha- 1 and 200 m3 ha-1) were applied and four types of coverage were adopted: fallow (control), crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.), millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Brown) and brachiaria (Urocloa cv. ruziziensis Germain & Evrard). The variables evaluated were: the plant height (h), dry mass, chlorophyll relative index Falker (ICF), specific leaf area (IAF), levels of macronutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg and S total) on the leaves of the bean, and soil organic matter (MOS) content, pH in CaCl2, potential acidity (H+Al), sum of bases (SB), cation exchange capacity (CTC), bases saturation (V) and P, K, Ca, and Mg contents of the soil. The association of vinasse and rates of remineralizer increased thebiometric parameters. The combination of rates of remineralizer and cover plants promoted differences in foliar macronutrient levels, with satisfactory levels of sufficiency to the bean, in the stage assessed. The application of vinasse provided lower rates of macronutrients accumulation in common beanin relation to treatments without vinasse. The use of remineralizer showed low response in chemical soil attributes, with values of pH, V and CTC lower than the initial ones. Cover crops showed no significant effect on pH and V, with a small decrease in H+Al, mainly in the braquiaria. The application of vinasse provided significant increases in chemical attributes V, pH and decreased H+Al. The pH values increased until 45 days of incubation (DAI), but with bean cultivation they decreased and were close to its initial values. On the other hand, the H+Al decreases until the bean planting, but tended to initial values after 45 DAI. The bean cultivation also decreased V. Interactions showed little effect of the associations on the evaluated variables, but the association of remineralizer with vinasse stood out for its effect on the variables pH, H + Al and V. The vinasse application was the most influential factor on the macronutrientes of the soil, presenting lower concentrations of these in the soil when applied, except for K. It is concluded that the use of cover plants with the application of remineralizer is little advantageous to increase the solubilization of nutrients contained in the remineralizer, although the amount absorbed by the cover plants has not been evaluated.