Ajustes cardiorrespiratórios em ratos submetidos a diferentes tipos de desidratações
Fávero, Michele Thaís
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Arthropods and vertebrates have a great ability to concentrate urine by the kidney and behaviors directed the conservation and acquisition of water and salt due to activities controlled by mechanisms involving hormones and neural circuits. The loss of water or body volume can occur in the intracellular compartment (intracellular dehydration), the extracellular compartment (extracellular dehydration) or both (absolute or duble dehydration). Studies from our laboratory had shown that in unanesthetized animals extracellular dehydration produced by furosemide injection followed by keeping animals with a sodium deficient diet does not alter the basal cardiovascular parameters, but change the basal ventilation.Therefore, the objectives of our study in unanesthetized rats submitted to intracellular dehydration or duble dehydration were: 1) to characterize the baseline cardiorespiratory responses; 2) evaluate the arterial blood gas parameters; 3) to evaluate plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium and plasma osmolality; 4) evaluate the cardiorespiratory responses to the activation of glutamate NMDA receptors in the NTS before and after pretreatment with glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5) of rats submitted to mixed dehydration. Holtzman rats were implanted with cannula in the NTS and catheter inserted in the abdominal aorta via the femoral artery and femoral vein. The ventilation (VE) measurement were obtained by whole body plethysmography method. The protocols was performed in rats euhydrated (before dehydration), dehydrated (following the methodology to induce dehydration) and/or rehydrated rats (2 h after free access to water and 0.3 M NaCl). The intracellular dehydration induced by intragastric overload 2 M NaCl (2 mL) produced an increase 22 in mean arterial pressure (MAP), without change the heart rate (HR), tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate (fR) and VE. The duble dehydration (intracellular and extracellular combined) induced by 24 h of water deprivation, produced an increase in MAP and VT without modifying the HR, fR and VE. In rehydrated rats PAM and VT returned to baseline. Unilateral injections of L-glutamate and NMDA glutamatergic receptor agonist into NTS of euhydrated rats produced pressor responses and bradycardia. After 24 hours of water deprivation these pressor and bradycardic responses produced by NMDA injection in the NTS were reduced, without changing the bradycardia produced by L-glutamate injection in the NTS. After rehydration, the pressor responses to L-glutamate and NMDA receptors in the NTS remained low and bradycardia produced by NMDA injection in the NTS. Furthermore, the objectives of our study in anesthetized animals subjected to extracellular dehydration were: 1) to characterize the baseline cardiorespiratory responses and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA); 2) to evaluate the effect of peripheral blockade of AT1 receptors angiotensinergic on basal cardiorespiratory responses and on RSNA; 3) to evaluate the arterial blood gas parameters; 4) to evaluate plasma concentrations of sodium and potassium. Extracellular dehydration induced by subcutaneous injection of the diuretic furosemide did not affect the basal MAP and HR, phrenic nerve activity (PNA) and RSNA. Extracellular dehydration did not affect the pressor response produced by intravenous (iv) injection of ANG II, decreased ASNR and did not change the HR and PNA. The iv injection of losartan (AT1 receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg body weight) induced a decrease in MAP without changing HR, and RSNA and PNA. The hypotensive response after iv injection of losartan was greater in dehydrated animals. Extracellular dehydration did not affect the response of RSNA and PNA after losartan administration. The results suggest that changes in the volume and composition of body fluids affect the cardiovascular control in animals with intracellular 23 dehydration. Furthermore, it affects the cardiorespiratory control in animals with mixed dehydration and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the NTS. Moreover, in anesthetized animals with extracellular dehydration showed no changes in baseline cardiorespiratory responses and RSNA.