Crianças com deficiência física, síndrome de Down e autismo : análise de características familiares na visão materna
Spinazola, Cariza de Cássia
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Families have a fundamental role in the development of their children, as they are characterized as the first context in which human beings take part of and it is through the relations stablished with the children that families affect their development. In this context, families of children with disability deserve attention, as they may need support to understand the needs of their children and to stablish relations before a child that demands a greater parental involvement. However, it is believed that such needs are different depending on the child deficiency. Therefore, the aims of this research are: (a) identify and compare the needs, the social support and family resources of families of children with physical disability, Down’s syndrome and autism, and (b) relate such variables. 60 mothers of children between zero and six years took part on the research, and were divided in three groups: the G1 formed by 20 mothers of children with physical disability; the G2 formed by 20 mothers of children with Down’s syndrome and the G3 formed by 20 mothers of children with autism. The average age of the mothers of the G1 was 33,8 and the children 3,6; in G2 the average was 36,1 to the mothers and 3,5 to the children; and in the G3 was 36,5 and 4,7 of the children. The contact with the mothers happened though a Special Education institution and a School Health Unity (USE). To achieve the aims, the participants answered, via interview, to the following instruments: Brazil Criteria; Survey on the family needs; Survey of social support and Inventory on the family’s environment resources. This study had two outlines, being ex-post-facto and correlational. To compare data from the mothers of children with physical disability, Down’s syndrome and autism the T-test was used and to related the family variables, the Pearson correlation test was used. As results, in relation to the families’ needs, when comparing the groups, it was noted that the G1 presented a higher statistical average compared to G2 in the aspects related to the need for information over the child deficiency, aid with abilities to answer questions from friends, neighbors and strangers about the child situation, aid in obtaining special materials and equipment that the child needs and financial aid. The G2 compared to G1, presented a higher statistical average in the aspects related to need of aid over the way to talk with the child, aid to find a way to mutually support each other in difficult times, and aid regarding the functioning of the family life. In the comparison between G1 and G3, it was observed that the G1 presented a higher statistical average than G3 in the items regarding the need for aid in obtaining the materials and equipment that the child needs and in the total of the financial subscale. The G3 presented a higher statistical average, in comparison with G1, in the factors related to the aid over the way to talk with the child, over the development of the child and explaining the child situations to other people. The comparison between G2 and G3 revealed that G2 presented a higher statistical average than G3 in relation to the need in having someone from the family to talk to about problems, other than friends to talk to, and in the total subscale of the group. The G3, in contrast, showed greater need for information regarding services and support the child could be benefited from in the future. In regarding to the social support, it was identified that the G2 presented a great number of supportive people, followed by G3 and G1, however, G1 presented as the most satisfied with the type of support received. Regarding the family environment resources, it was noted that the families stimulate and interact frequently with their children. G3, however, presented a greater frequency in comparison with G1 and G2 in assisting with school work. Regarding the second objective of the study, it was identified correlations between several variables, such as: (a) the total needs presented negative correlation with the right time for the children to do their homework; (b) the needs for support and functioning of the family life revealed to have a negative correlation with the number of supportive people; and (c) the need for support correlated negatively with the socioeconomic level and children education. The amount of supportive people showed to have a positive correlation with the frequency of right time for the child to have lunch and do homework, as well as with gatherings on weekends. It is concluded that this study does not presented a higher number of statistically significant differences when comparing families of children with physical disability, Down’s syndrome and autism, however it brings subside for future interventions with these family groups, concerning the decrease of family needs, maximization of social support and stimulation of family environment.