Modernização do complexo agroindustrial canavieiro paulista e seus efeitos sobre a gestão do trabalho agrícola
Reis, Leonardo Ferreira
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This study aims to answer the following question: why do the arduous working conditions continue to exist in the agricultural work process of the Agroindustrial Complex (CAI) of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, even with predominance of mechanized operations of every production process? The hypothesis pursued is: to remunerate the productive capital inserted in the logic of the Flexible Accumulation Regime, the Sugarcane CAI of São Paulo state must raise productivity to extremely high levels, either by creating relative or absolute surplus value, forming conditions of hazardous work. To verify this hypothesis, we used two data collection methods: a) a qualitative one, with semi-structured interviews and field observations, and b) a quantitative one, through application of questionnaires to managers of the Human Resources Management of the sugarcane CAI, and data obtained from secondary databases of public agencies and private consulting companies. The results indicate that, with the mechanization of the sugarcane production, technological innovations were implemented to increase the productivity of all operations, which influenced the concrete work. In this process of productive modernization, there was a combination between predominant mechanized operations, and remaining manual activities, both with high productivity and hazardous working conditions. The manual activities became important to improve the quality of the production process, while the machines operation became central in the valorization of the capital in the CAI. This strategy imposes exploitation of labor at degrading levels, lowering wages, causing illness, and making workers extremely vulnerable to labor force control mechanisms. Payment based on production continues to play a central role among these mechanisms, but in a modern way with the inclusion of personal performance indicators, that is also the basis for selection and training strategies. The arduous working conditions is a characteristic of the Sugarcane Complex modernization process, because it is necessary to the productive capital valorization in this complex, reproducing the Flexible Accumulation contradictions in this complex.