Viabilidade da implantação de um programa de pagamentos por serviços ambientais: uma análise na sub-bacia do Pirajibu, Sorocaba-SP
Corrêa, Carina Júlia Pensa
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Public policy incentives are essential to the effectiveness of environmental law and the preservation of services provided by ecosystems. In this context, Payments for Ecosystem Services –PSE programs remunerate environmental services providers through funds built from the user/polluter pays logic. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of implementing a PSA program in Pirajibu watershed, Sorocaba -SP, and suggest suitable alternatives for the conservation of water resources in the region. To this end, secondary data were collected on public agencies. In addition, were analyzed pictures from the RapidEye satellite (Ministry of Environment-ME), and with the help of satellite images from Google Earth, processed in Quantum GIS 1.6 software- Open Source Information Systems Finally, field trips were made to verify the information found. The results indicate that there is difficulty identifying possible providers and calculate the opportunity cost of the land, since agriculture is a rare activity in the region. Regarding environmental services, there was a great potential of the Pirajibu –Mirim River for water supply. This watershed has been studied in more detail, its water sources were mapped and some of them diagnosed in macroscopic analysis in the field. The water sources are, for the most part, in particular areas, with water having satisfactory aspects. However, there is the presence of garbage, lack of identification, proximity roads and the lack of environmental compliance expected by the Brazilian Forest Code (Lei nº. 12.651/ 2012). This scenario shows the importance that public policy in Sorocaba-SP considers the recovery and protection of water sources, however, not directly compensating the owner. It is suggested that the model has the forecast works for soil conversation on dirt roads, in addition to a donation of inputs and technical assistance to owners interested in recovery. Also considering the characteristics of relief and zoning of the master plan, it is proposed to establish a Private Reserve of National Heritage - PRNP at the head region of Pirajibu -Mirim River. Finally, it is suggested the implementation of other tax incentive policies in the region, such as property tax reduction in suitable properties with economic and social use.