Repercussões das intervenções preventivas sobre o uso de álcool e drogas entre adolescentes de ensino médio e fundamental
Volpato, Rosa Maria Jacinto
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In Brazil and in the world, the use of licit and illicit drugs among adolescents is becoming more frequent and its onset more precocious. This use, even if experimental, according to the literature, occurs around the age of 13. It is of great importance to know and understand the expectations and the reasoning that leads to the use. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate groups of Elementary and Middle School students submitted to a school program to prevent alcohol and drug use, before and after receiving preventive interventions. It is a quasi-experimental study with evaluations before and after interventions. A total of 231 adolescents from primary and secondary education in São Carlos-SP, who answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, knowledge about the consequences of drug use, Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI - table 1 and area 1) and scales of expectations regarding the use of Alcohol and drugs in adolescents (EEPA-A and EED-A). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyzes were performed using R® Software. The mean age was 13.62 ± 1.6, female (53.25%), 76% of elementary school and 24% of high school, 76% had religion, 85% had participated in alcohol and drugs prevention programs at school. The level of knowledge improved overall among adolescents after the intervention. The frequency of substance use in the last month, alcohol Fem. (T0 = 17% and T1 = 21%) and Male (T0 = 16% and T1 = 21%); marijuana Fem. (T0 = 4% and T1 = 10%) and Male (T0 = 9% and T1 = 7%); And tobacco Fem. (T0 = 5% and T1 = 4%) and Male (T0 = 8% and T1 = 4%); Inhalants /solvents Fem. (T0 = 4% and T1 = 4%) and Male (T0 = 3% and T1 = 3%); Cocaine / crack Fem. (T0 = 3% and T1 = 1%) and Male (T0 = 1% and T1 = 1%); other drugs Fem. (T0 = 17% and T1 = 17%) and Male (T0 = 13% and T1 = 7%)being the most frequently used among substances from 1 to 2 times. Pattern of consumption "non occasional users / users" Fem. (T0 = 42% and T1 = 40%) and Male (T0 = 38% and T1 = 34%); "Harmful use" Fem. (T0 = 8% and T1 = 7%) and Male (T0 = 7% and T1 = 9%); "Dependency indications" Fem. (T0 = 3% and T1 = 6%) and Male (T0 = 2% and T1 = 4%). Regarding the expectations, the use of drugs (EED-A) did not present post-intervention difference, the EEPA-A presented statistical difference in T1, the median was higher in the general group (p-value = 0.0021; p <0 , 05) and Male (P-value = 0.0086, p <0.05). We did not find significant changes in expectations for the adolescents after the intervention. We observed its effectiveness in relation to the use of certain substances and improvement of general knowledge. We conclude that, in addition to the development of specific programs, it is necessary that, in areas of vulnerability to the use of psychoactive substances, other longitudinal actions in the school context be implemented, within the scope of its pedagogical project.