Processos socioculturais da gestão ambiental na terra indígena Guarani Pinhalzinho, Tomazina, PR
Solano Calvo, Manuela de Jesus
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The Brazilian indigenous reality is reduced in their indigenous lands demarcated with very small spaces for its development. According to IBGE (2010), the Brazilian indigenous population is estimated at 817,963 thousand Indians, which represents 0.4% of the Brazilian population, of which 502,783 resided in indigenous lands and 315,180 resided outside these lands being distributed in the five regions of the country , In different proportions. Brazil's public policies are constantly changing; this is expressed in the National Policy on Territorial and Environmental Management of Indigenous Lands (PNGATI), which aims to guarantee the protection of natural resources through environmental management instruments. The present work paper analyzes the theme of environmental management of indigenous lands in Brazil and the specificities of this process in the Pinhalzinho Indigenous Territory, in the city of Tomazina (PR), with the main objective of characterizing the interfaces between environmental management and political organization, revaluing the culture , social identity and education. An Environmental Basic Project (PBA) has been developed there, implemented since 2012, as part of the social and environmental compensation of the Indians for the construction of the Mauá Hydroelectric Power Plant, in the Tibagi river basin. In order to do so, the present work makes an analysis through the application of semi-structured interviews and direct observation, together with local indigenous leaderships, as well as official documents and organizations and contributions of scientific literature related to environmental management in indigenous land. The research shows the specific forms of interactions between environmental management and other social, cultural and political processes in the community studied. However, socio-cultural processes contribute to environmental management within indigenous land with the development of several projects as part of the process of recovery, preservation of the Guarani culture and Nature. It points to studies on environmental education in indigenous lands, especially when one considers the multifaceted interface with the universe of culture, social identity, political organization and the conquest of rights.