Dietas alimentares e as emissões de gases de efeito estufa nas capitais brasileiras
Costa, Gabriella Nunes da
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Food consumption has two distinct consequences on welfare: on the one hand, it determines the nutritional situation of consumers; on the other hand, it affects the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), thus impacting global warming. In this context, this study aims to evaluate food consumption of different groups of consumers who reside in the capitals of the Brazilian states and in the Federal District, in terms of meeting their nutritional needs and causing GHG emissions. The results suggest that high-income consumers reach adequate level of nourishment through food consumption away from home. However, low-income consumers fail to reach food security, despite spending a considerable share of their incomes on food purchases. Consequently, Brazilian food insecurity can be attributed to limited access to food. Regarding GHG emissions, diets of high-income consumers are associated with higher emissions due to the consumption of beef and dairy products. If consumers adopted the most GHG-intensive diet, total emissions would between 29.0 and 62.2 thousand metric tons CO2 equivalent daily. Conversely, if all individuals consumed the least GHG-intensive diet able to meet their nutritional needs, total GHG emissions would be of 16.1 thousand metric tons CO2 equivalent daily. Thus, Brazilian policymakers should incentivize the consumption of diets which could meet people’s nutritional needs at a minimum environmental cost.