O processo de implantação do Ensino de 1º grau instituído pela Lei n° 5.692/71 na rede escolar paranaense: uma análise da documentação do Conselho Estadual de Educação (1971-1975)
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This is a quali-quantitative study based on documental research aiming at analyzing historically the implementation process of elementary schooling instituted by the Law nº 5.692 of 11th August 1971, with the purpose of understanding the historical conditions in which it was enacted in the State of Paraná. The analysis was carried out through the study of Technical Opinions by the Education State Council, issued after assemblies held between 1971 and 1975. Since the Military Government Education Reform, instituted by the 1964 civilian-military coup, enabled the extension of mandatory schooling from 7 to 14 years old, it included legally great part of the population in the institutional formal education process. A legal right that, up to that moment did not assist many of the individuals in the Brazilian society as a whole, therefore, it was necessary to investigate the quantitative relations in which this process was developed. It is a fact that the capitalist production mode, as well as the social organization resulting from it, determines public policies in general. Thus, we sought to understand the historical context in which the civilian, military coup occurred, and the consequent need to establish a new teaching organization, since the government system instituted through agreements with the United States of America aimed, through the education process, to qualify workforce for the expansion of the industrial development in Brazil. Enlightened by Fernandes (2005), Ianni (1984), and Alves (1984), we sought to establish the historical constitution of the Brazilian elite, to evidence their interests towards the State organization and the need to promote the civilian-military coup of 1964 and, consequently, their actions regarding the Education Reforms. Therefore, by carrying out the historical analysis of the education policy created, based on Saviani (2008), Cunha and Góes (1991), and Germano (1993), we evidenced the relations between the politics structured at the time and the urgent need of reforms to guarantee viable strategic conditions to the “national development”. Taking into consideration the strong influence of the Human Capital Theory in the structure of the national education project, we analyzed that concept based on Schultz’s ideas (1973) which were incorporated to the political discourses and to the individuals’ formal education process from the 5th year of elementary school on, when the right to mandatory 8 years of schooling were instituted aiming at qualifying those individuals to the job market, directing them to a compulsory professionalization, and how this project influenced other forms of the school organization, such as teachers’ education and the structural, physical and material conditions of the schools in Paraná. This research collaborates with the academic field, mainly regarding education policies in the history of Brazilian education for pointing out that, even if those policies have been put forward as attainment of rights, in this specific case, the access to eight years of schooling, the capitalist structure led the education process so that it would remain focused on the interests of the elite, since, as a general rule, public education and schooling were destined to the children of the working class, they were established only under precarious conditions, consequently limiting those students access to culture and scientific knowledge.
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