Patrimônio histórico e conflitos socioterritoriais: paradoxos da (i)legibilidade dos tombamentos e das normas de preservação, a partir de Cáceres-MT
Costa, Dilma lourença da
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My arguments have an ethnographic point of view on historical heritage, after a 3 years fieldwork carried out in Cáceres, a cultural city located in the interior of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Fielwork is concentrated in the Historic Center and the focus is on understanding the current dynamics of the urban and institucional conflicts. The understanding is that conflicts are present in the daily life of the city, but, in the case of an area of cultural heritage, the declaration is a generating element of the conflict, because it is seen as an imposition of the State. Thus, our objective in the research was to analyze the dynamics of socio-territorial conflicts that tension the relationship between owners/tenants and the institutional agents that act on the heritage declaration in the Historic Center of the city, place of the senses and meanings of heritage. Therefore, we analytically reflect on the governance of heritage among the different federal entities, placing the issue of state opacity in the face of the complex connection and articulation between the Laws, Rules and Public Policies of heritage, including for the containment and management of conflicts. Our reflection went through a set of analytical categories that guided all steps of the research: historical heritage, inventory, declaration, preservation, intervention rules and preservation policies, and that took shape with the notion of the paradoxes of the state (i)legibility. Since our initial immersion in the empirical field, even in the first contacts that preceded the interviews, these paradoxes have proved to be central to understanding the conflicts surrounding the cacerense heritage. Given this context, we gathered, in this analysis, arguments around socio-territorial conflicts, according as they put us in relation to all the actors that we were interested in discussing, in order to understand the paradoxes of this mutual illegibility. The categories also included the survey and compilation of documentary data, of the most diverse, used in the thesis, in addition to being read from the narratives of the owners and renters, of the institutional agents. The difficulty of common language between different federative entities and their administrative bodies, and of them with the owners and renters, produced innumerable conflicts, which allowed us to identify the arguments of each one in the face of conflicts and, not less important, to move through the theoretical field that they illuminated us. The paradoxes of (i)legibility proved, for our analysis, to be bilateral. On the one hand, government entities (at the municipal, state and federal levels) have demonstrated numerous difficulties in articulating and reading the daily life of the Cáceres center. On the other hand, owners and renters had difficulties to read the interest conflicts behind the history heritage declaration and, above all, to understand the bureaucratic game underlying these interests. The plots between these paradoxes are seen throughout the thesis and, given the scene it presents, it highlights the initial point of the conflicts in the historic center in Cáceres, emphasizing the state practices that have been the guiding thread of its intensification.
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