Cultura infantil, culturas infantis e culturas da infância: polissemias em debate.
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This dissertation, inspired by Foucault's genealogy, pursues the concept of “child culture” in order to understand its polysemy, derivations and (in)definitions within the theoretical fields of Childhood Sociology, Early Childhood Education and Childhood Anthropology. Its objective is to map the concept of "child culture" and the way in which it has been mobilized, characterizing the polysemy of the concept and its derivations in the field of Early Childhood Education, Childhood Sociology and Childhood Anthropology, unfolding in the specific objectives, 1) To map and understand the concept of "child culture" in Early Childhood Education, Sociology of Childhood and Anthropology of Childhood researches, based on theoretical productions from the three areas and 2) identify in academic production the way in which the concept "child culture ” is mobilized and how its derivations, such as “children's cultures” and childhood cultures” are presented, what debates they provoke, what themes they carry and what theoretical perspectives they are based on. It starts from the work of Florestan Fernandes, a sociologist considered to be a pioneer in studies related to children and their cultures in Brazil, based on his investigation of folklore. By coining “children's culture” in his writings, Fernandes (1961) understands it as a category of social analysis, turning his gaze to the collective of children and giving visibility to other forms of socialization not considered in the researches of his time until then. Situations related to gender, ethnicity, race, social class and age are highlighted in the trocinhas and frolics investigated by Florestan Fernandes. There is, however, a certain modification and reinterpretation of the concept of “child culture” due to new debates, demands and perspectives that are being adopted with the inauguration of the fields of Childhood Sociology, Early Childhood Education and Childhood Anthropology. Based on a bibliographical survey and genealogical inspiration, 24 Brazilian productions dating from 1999 to 2021 were selected and analyzed. There is a predominance of studies on "child culture", "children's cultures" and "childhood cultures" in magazines of the educational area, showing that the proposed debate on culture is especially related to Early Childhood Education institutions. When composing a genealogy of the Sociology of Childhood, we are faced with prominent countries, theoretical perspectives that underpin it, and themes that are providential in the debates raised within it, such as agency, protagonism, production of culture and children's collective. The same was done with the concept of “child culture”, composing a genealogy about this one that would be able to present their perspectives, theoretical basis and the themes that are parallel and complementary to them. Thus, the issues of time, play, socialization, teacher education and research with children stand out. Among the theoretical basis on which these works are based, the studies by Florestan Fernandes, Manuel Sarmento and Manuel Pinto and Willian Corsaro stand out. Based on the studies analyzed and highlighted throughout this work, it is recognized that the field of Sociology of Childhood and Early Childhood Education grows and strengthens in a tangential way in the Brazilian research scenario and complement each other in relation to the interests for children and childhood . We are faced with a moving, plural and hybrid Sociology of Childhood in Brazil, as it integrates different interests, needs, objectives and methodologies in addition to sociological ones.
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