Brincando e interagindo na educação infantil: experiências de bebês no cotidiano de práticas educativas
Gigioli, Maria Elisa Nicolielo
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The research is based on the understanding that babies are capable of learning and that they are powerful from birth, thus, it investigates their interactions in the context of daycare based on the following questions: How do babies interact with their peers and adults when expressing themselves playing in the daycare context? How do babies interact with toys, objects, and space while playing? As a result of these questions, the research aims to identify, describe and analyze, through playing, the interactions of babies with their peers, adults, toys, objects, and space during playtime in the Nursery. We understand that children have numerous languages such as babbling, facial and body expressions, but the focus of this investigation is the language of play. Initially, a bibliographic survey was carried out to substantiate the social and scientific relevance of the research, followed by theoretical framework research whose main themes were: Emmi Pikler's approach, understanding about babies, early childhood education in Ministry documents of Education, educating, caring and playing as a function of Early Childhood Education. With a qualitative approach, the investigation was carried out in a municipal daycare center in a city in the countryside of São Paulo, with 13 babies from the Nursery I class and four educators responsible for the class. The investigation was restricted to looking at the moments of playing that occur from the availability of toys and objects to babies, by the educators. The instrument used to collect the data was the interactive observation and it was registered through video, followed by the full written transcript, with 24 transcripts referring to the 24 data collection sessions that lasted approximately 30 minutes each. The organization of the collected data was made based on content analysis. As the last stage of this analysis, the results were analyzed in the light of the theoretical framework, having as primary authors: Falk, Tardos, Tardos and Szanto-Feder, Soares, Kálló and Balog, Gonzalez-Mena and Eyer, Barbosa, Rinaldi. The results revealed that the interactions and games experienced by the babies took place in a context with no offer of qualified experiences and situations. An example of this was the organization of the space to play, which remained in the same way, with the same toys and objects, without careful observation, planning, or educational intention on the part of the educators so the babies were encouraged in their actions. Therefore, we discussed some aspects that contribute to spontaneity practices that are present in early childhood education, such as in the context of teacher education in Brazil, indicating the necessity of studies that contribute to the implementation of qualified practices in daycare centers. The research revealed the importance of providing babies with the true experience which gives opportunities for interactions and games in a challenging environment and that encourages them in their discoveries. Therefore, it is considered necessary to change educational practices with babies from 0 to 3 years to educate and transform them.
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