História e cultura afro-brasileira e africana nos livros didáticos de matemática: um olhar a partir da hermenêutica da profundidade de Thompson
Roberto, Daniele Fernanda
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This study aims to present an analysis of the presence of Afro-Brazilian and African history and culture (HCAA- initials in portuguese) in mathematics textbooks for the final years of Elementary School, approved and distributed by the National Textbook Program (PNLD) of the year of 2020. To carry out these analyses, the theoretical and methodological assumptions of John B. Thompson's socio-critical theory were used, thus, the focus of this work was the Symbolic Forms transmitted through the related themes of the HCAA present in the textbooks of the analyzed collections. In this research, the construction of a historical panorama about the black people in Brazil was carried out, approaching their struggles and achievements in the educational and legislative scope, as well as an analytical reflection on the role of the PNLD, as an educational policy, observing its dimension in the process of valuing the contents of the HCAA in textbooks. The general basis of this analysis was based on 104 excerpts found in textbooks, which cover images, texts and activities related to the HCAA. For this purpose, the typical forms of Thompson's (1995) symbolic construction were used: legitimation, dissimulation, unification, fragmentation and reification. The results obtained referred to the typical strategies of ideology operation, in which the symbolic constructions reinforce asymmetrical and discriminatory relationships. The need for an improvement in the approach to teaching the HCAA in mathematics textbooks is highlighted, which reconsiders its representation from the perspective of the National Curriculum Guidelines for the Education of Ethnic-Racial Relations and for the Teaching of Afro-Brazilian and African History and Culture (DCNERER).
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