Diversidade cultural e educação escolar: perspectiva comunicativo-dialógica para o trabalho pedagógico
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The dissertation hereby presented and entitled Cultural Diversity and School Education: dialogic-communicative perspective for the pedagogical work comes up with an investigation result guided by the following research question: which elements favor or impede the pedagogical work which uses as its source the existing diversity in the classroom? The research was carried out in a Primary School 1st-year classroom of one of the Municipal Primary Schools of São Carlos, which are Learning Communities. In Learning Communities, the objective is to seek education based on the communicative rationality by Habermas, dialogicity by Freire and on the principles of the dialogic learning formulated by the Special Center of Theories and Practices to Overcome Inequalities (CREA/UB Spain), in which diversity at school is considered to be an educational advantage to be explored. As for the investigation, the guidelines were taken from the Critical Communicative Methodology of research, which has dialogue and social transformation as its axles. Its theoretical bases are elaborations by Habermas, Freire and CREA. The procedures of data collection and used resources were: a) communicative observation through keeping a daily journal and filming classroom situations; b) communicative reports, recorded or filmed, with the teacher, students families, students and volunteers of the investigated classroom; c) communicative discussion group with the same agents. The data was collected between August and December of 2008 and the analysis was carried out based on the chart recommended by the Methodology itself, through which aspects that generate obstacles and/or transformation in the evaluated reality are identified. The data analysis in this methodology is intersubjective and was carried out with the support of all the participants between October 2008 and June 2009. As a result, the presence of different people in the moments of teaching and learning is highlighted as a great favoring element, as well as the educator s concern in providing opportunities to talk about diversity, how different people build knowledge historically and how this affects our lives. By thinking of the elements that impede such a pedagogical work, the inexistence of a communicative curriculum which meets both the formative needs dreamed of by the families towards their children and what is intended in the laws which rule education in the country and in the city in question is highlighted. In addition, there is the difficulty in working with prejudice, discrimination and racism matters, which are still present in the different scopes in our lives. Furthermore, taking diversity as an educational advantage in the researched situation is also emphasized, thus revealing the interaction as the crucial element for a teaching practice which is based on diversity. Such an interaction is favoring if considered from an intercultural education, through a communicative rationality, which is effected through dialogicity. In this sense, the posture assumed by the teacher revealed fundamental.