Caracterização da bacia do córrego Itanguá como suporte à gestão da Floresta Nacional de Capão Bonito/SP visando à conservação da água
Leal, Mariana Santos
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Water is one of the most abundant natural resources on the planet, but at the same time is becoming scarce in both quantity and quality in many regions, causing numerous conflicts. The watershed must be a permeable environment, where water infiltrates the soil and reaches the water table and then can be distributed abundant and continuously. Knowledge of the physical and biological characteristics of the basin influencing the handling and consequently the production of water. This study aimed to characterize the Itanguá watershed to support the management of the National Capão Bonito Forest, SP for conservation of water. This dissertation was divided into chapters: chapter 1 contextualized the issues relevant to this study, in the form of bibliographic review, chapter 2 discussed the hydro-environmental characterization of the basin, chapter 3 identified the vulnerability of Itangua watershed to the floods and the areas to be reforested in the permanent preservation areas, chapter 4 identified the priority areas for soil and water conservation and chapter 5 provides a general conclusion. The first results indicated that 60% of the sources analyzed in situ, were characterized as point while the others were diffuse and according to macroscopic evaluation, 13% of the sources were considered with great, 80% good and 7% with reasonable conservation state. The main negative environmental impacts observed were the presence of both exotic species such as: Boar (Sus scrofa) and Pinus spp. and the absence of native vegetation in the area of permanent preservation. The morphometric analysis showed that the Itanguá watershed is an important site for the conservation of water resources by having more elongated and low tendency to form flooding. Were also found nine different priorities classes of soil conservation practices implementation and six classes for forest restoration in permanent preservation area of waterways. The results provided a characterization of the basin Itanguá and important information, since they contribute to the Flona the management plan of Capão Bonito. All methods used in the study were satisfactory to achieve the proposed purpose.