Concepção de um currículo crítico: a ética como referência praxiológica
Furlan, Angélica Bellodi Sant'Ana
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Based on a traditionalist, banking and decontextualized education, curriculum policies and educational practices of public schools in the regular school system, have contributed little to a social quality of education and politics. From the critically-reproductivist educational theories and critical theories of the curriculum, it was clear that the school environment is not free to reproduce injustice and social inequality, confirming the legitimacy of stratified society. Thus, due to socially ineffective character of public education and for believing in the educational and social relevance of discussing the axiological basis on which has given this education, this study adopts the ethical principles of the philosophy of Enrique Dussel, defended the emancipation by Theodor Adorno and the political and pedagogical proposals of the author and educator Paulo Freire as benchmarks to characterize a humanizing curriculum proposal. It is intended to contribute to the theoretical understanding of the course theme in order to indicate a possible aid to overcome the practical difficulties observed from theoretical and critical foundations adopted here. Basing on a qualitative methodological approach, the research was divided between the documentary analysis of the Curriculum of the São Paulo State and semi-structured interviews with educators in order to get the perception that each social actor has the respect of the issues. Data were analyzed from the construction of key categories to an education and an ethical-critical curriculum. Overall, it was concluded that the current curriculum proposal, although present in progressive discourse, has a normative character, suggesting a transmissive and decontextualized education, not fitting well understood in the categories of analysis and defined in accordance with ethical assumptions, emancipatory and dialogical. Regarding the discourse analysis of the educators, the results show that they do not realize subjects of curriculum process, since undergoing the requirements of state curriculum without question, and do not show concerns to discuss socially relevant issues in their practices, making them a mechanical process, and conteudista memorístico. In this context, this work may ultimately contribute to the improvement of curriculum practices that protect the concrete human needs and based on ethical and critical assumptions, resulting in the formation of emancipated subject and aware of the importance of civic action. If, and only if, the education that the school offers is socially engaged and if the educator is ethically and politically committed to this education is that there is the possibility of students being full subjects of their educational process and social change agents. It is believed finally, that a study process built on these foundations can respond to the issues facing education, giving the company the ethical values it needs.