Condições de trabalho e saúde de professores de alunos com ou sem necessidades educacionais especiais
Silva, Nilson Rogério da
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The of teaching profession is permeated by adverse work conditions, low wages, inadequacy of material and didactic resources, numerous classrooms, tension in the relationship with the students, excessive work load, lack of safety in the school atmosphere, inexpressive participation in the institution planning and in the institutional politics. The present study had for objective to compare work conditions and health, considering physical aspects with three groups of teachers who teach in elementary grades, as well as to investigate possible implications in the service to be provided to the students. Participated in the study 60 teachers of the Metropolitan Net of Elementary Teaching (1st to 4th grades) from the District of Bauru, distributed in three groups: a) 20 teachers who teach in regular school classroom without the inclusion of students with special educational needs RSI Group; b) 20 teachers who teach in the regular classroom with special needs students RCI Group; c) 20 teachers who teach in resource classrooms (SR Group). For data collection two instruments were used: Semi structured interview to investigate teachers perceptions about occupational health risks, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory MBI protocol to evaluate the burnout presence. The results were organized in form of tables and the data was analyzed by SPSS version 13.0 and by a non parametric Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison of the 3 groups. In general, the results demonstrated that the groups presented relative similarity. The teachers from the SR Group obtained the best results in the evaluation of the burnout three scales when compared with RSI Group and RCI Group, that is, with prevalence of answers in the lower levels of emotional exhaustion, high level of low personal accomplishment and low level for depersonalization. Related to the physical complaints, it was observed that RCI Group presented larger frequency of discomfort highlighting the head, spinal cord, neck and superior members. About the evaluation of the work conditions, the three groups considered the evaluated aspects (work environment, work organization, materials and equipments and pedagogic resources) as appropriate. However, RCI Group indicated larger indicators of inadequacy. Agreement was observed in the results of the two used instruments, in the sense that both of them indicate that RCI Group would be more vulnerable to develop emotional exhaustion referred to the physical aspects and work conditions, expressed by means of discomfort. In reference to emotional aspects, one of the components of the emotional exhaustion, RCI group presented larger percentile in seven of the fourteen investigated aspects. SR group presented the smallest percentile of incidence of the stress. Most of the teachers didn't present depersonalization problems. In relation to the decrease of the personal accomplishment, the three groups presented high scores, what characterizes low level since it is a negative scale. It is hoped that these results contribute for a better understanding of the burnout in teachers from regular classrooms with or without students with educational special needs and/or to raise new directions for investigation.