Avaliação das possibilidades do ensino colaborativo no processo de inclusão escolar do aluno com deficiência mental.
Capellini, Vera Lúcia Messias Fialho
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Every day the school faces the challenge of teaching with quality all the students but without having a lot of success in working with the diversity because of the verified absence of a serious and effective politics of inclusive education in most of the school systems. In the students with special education needs case, the access to a common class in regular schools has being minimum and there are several no solved questions on how the philosophical beginning of school inclusion could happen in practice, not only promoting the socialization but also those students' school income. An alternative thoroughly emphasized has been the need of teachers' qualification who have already been working with those students in their groups. And the scientific literature of more experienced countries in practices of school inclusion has being choosed the collaborative work in the school context as a strategy in ascension, that has shown effectiveness to solve several problems related to the process of teaching and learning and to promote the educators' personal and professional development. The objective of this study consisted in verifying the implications of one way of collaborative work in the school that would be denominated "collaborative teaching" which involves the establishment of a partnership basically among teachers of regular and special teaching. The study was driven at two common schools of elementary teaching, and more directly in four groups from 1st to 4th grades where six students with mental deficiency were inserted. Before and after the intervention, academic and social acting measures of all the students of the four groups were collected. The intervention based in the collaborative teaching involved the establishment of a partnership with the teacher of the special teaching systematic support inside the common class together with the teacher of the regular teaching, in some days of the week and activities planned extra-class, reflection on the practice, meetings with relatives, meetings with the school group and driven studies. The intervention in each group lasted from one semester to one year, and the study had total duration of two years, evolving the attendance in the four groups. After the intervention stage measures of social validity based on the teachers' and families´ opinions on the teaching collaborative were collected. The intervention based on collaborative teach involved a partnership determined by the sistematic support of the special education teacher inside the usual classroom, with the regular education teacher, in some days of the week, besides the extra-class activities with planning, reflexion about the practice, meetings with the student´s families, meetings with the coletive of school and conducted study. The intervention in each group, last since six months to one year, and all the study lasted two years including the four groups attendance. After the intervention stage, social information were colected based on teacher´s and families´s statement about collaborative teaching. The results indicate that all the six students had evoluted in the acting even academic or in socialization, although considerable discrepancy is observed in comparison with the average yield of the group. For all of the teachers the teaching collaborative made possible personal and professional development but some difficulties appeared mainly in the united activities in the classroom atmosphere. The relatives considered that their children had improvements and they felt safer for the fact of having two teachers in the room. The study also indicated that the collaborative teaching was evaluated as an effective strategy of the teachers' personal and professional development involved in practices that seek the school inclusion. As implications of the study, we discuss about the need of changes in the culture of initial and continuous formation of common and special education teachers to prepare them to really act in collaboration. It is still discussed the new role of the special education teacher to act priory as support centered in the common class and not just in services that involve the students' retreat with special education needs of the group or exclusively in segregated services.