Histórias da educação especial produzidas a partir de matérias publicadas em jornal paulista : 1997- 2004
Santos, Keisyani da Silva
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In the transition from the twentieth to the twenty-first century, with the advent of international policies for Inclusive Education, Brazilian Special Education outlines new directions for its history. In this period, significant changes in the conduct of educational policies for the targeted audience of Special Education students began to occur throughout the country. Given the organizational structure of Brazilian education, the role of states and municipalities were, and are extremely important for the effectiveness of national guidelines. Considering the context of substantial changes, this study aimed to analyze and retell the stories of Special Education in São Paulo [re] produced in the printed newspaper "O Estado de São Paulo", from 1997 to 2004. More specifically, the objective is to: identify and analyze the themes and characters related to special education, more frequent in the texts conveyed by the newspaper; analyze the design disseminated by the newspaper on Special Education and its target audience; and relate the content of the articles with educational policies for the target audience of Special Education. It was adopted as reference the conception of history and of historical production proposed by the Annales school, which breaks with the tradition of factual history, great heroes and ultimate truths, based on written records and especially on official documents. The documentary corpus consisted of texts published in the printed newspaper "O Estado de S. Paulo" in the period of 1997-2004, which were given at least a descriptor related to educational references in Special Education, previously established. Data were collected in the official site collection of the newspaper "O Estado de S. Paulo" through image capture, stored and organized in a digital database. About 5,844 articles were examined, from January 1997 to December 2004. The content analysis was made with the help of Atlas.ti software. The first analysis step was to filter the text with a focus on education. In the second, the texts were categorized based on the analysis axes: scope, condition, character, theme and relationship with educational policies. In the third one, the analysis was performed through the calculation of the frequency, absolute and cumulative, and content c-coefficient of co-occurrence of the analysis categories. Finally, in the fourth stage, stories of the Special Education in São Paulo were rescued, based on articles published in the newspaper "O Estado de S. Paulo". In all, 698 texts were selected for analysis. The results show that among the groups that comprise the target audience of Special Education, the condition of deficiency was the most discussed, with emphasis on the use of generic terms. The most frequently mentioned topics were school inclusion (n = 72) and philanthropy (n = 57), and the characters more often cited were special institutions (n = 168) and special school (n = 65). Several links between themes and characters were also found. By rescuing some stories we could identify an increase in the number of Special Education targeted students enrollment in regular education, successful experiences of school inclusion, the role of specialized institutions in school inclusion times, the need for restructuring of the educational system for the effectuation of the proposed inclusive education and how educational policies were translated in the field, as well as their relationship with the stories rescued.