Efeitos do coensino na mediação pedagógica para estudantes com cegueira congênita
Paulino, Vanessa Cristina
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In the political, philosophical and legal aspects, the schooling of children with disabilities, such as blind children, is based on the inclusion paradigm. Considering the particularities in the development and learning of blind children, especially the ones with congenital blindness, the mere provision of certain specific pedagogical resources will not guarantee that their needs are met, which may compromise their process of concept formation at school. That happens because the teacher in a regular classroom will not always have enough support, such as services and resources, suitable for the development of pedagogical practices actually tangible to the blind learner. Thus, since the service of co-teaching has been pointed out in the literature of the area as an alternative to the success of school inclusion, a collaborative action-research case study was conducted. Two studies are ready, with the purpose of implementing in the first one. In Study 1 was implementing, describing and analyzing pedagogical practices that enable students with congenital blindness, in a regular class, to access the curriculum through co-teaching service, in a classroom with two responsables: regular professor who teachs in this class, and a special teacher, this researcher. In the Study 2, the aim was check the knowledge and opinion of the teacher of the regular class about the coensino's service, before and after being provided by this special educator / researcher. The sample was then composed of: a student with congenital blindness - with no other impairments, enrolled in the first cycle of elementary school, his regular classroom teacher and this co-teaching special educator/researcher. The research was developed in the enrollment room and the performance of the participants took place in a 4th year classroom of elementary school, in a municipal public school. Research data were divided into two studies. In Study 1, the Co-teaching service was implemented during a school semester; planning and development of pedagogical practices that enabled the participant to access the curriculum were carried out. A practice from the Sciences curriculum component, with "Solar System" theme, was selected for description and analysis of Study 1; designed by the educators of the regular classroom and the co-teaching special educator/researcher to be initially accessible to the blind student, but planned under the precepts of the Universal Design for Learning (UDL), it was assumed to benefit the other students. The description and analysis of this teaching situation were made through the Protocol for registration and evaluation of curricular pedagogical activities, formulated by this researcher, composed of: Curriculum, Co-teaching, Pedagogical Resource, Measurement and Evaluation. The results of Study 1 showed that the Curriculum had to be adapted and softened to the blind student, but these accommodations, due to the UDL, were extended to all students. Regarding Co-teaching, it was found that the station teaching and teaching team arrangements coexisted, coherent with the student's demands with blindness and this practice. As for the Pedagogical Resource item, concerning both the ones of general and specific use, the participant with blindness showed difficulties in apprehending the concepts, probably due to the mediation strategies carried out, initially through audio description. Finally, regarding the evaluation of the practice, through students "Report of experience", filled out by the end of the class, it was shown that they appreciated the mediations of the concepts relying on the specific pedagogical resources, such as verbal interaction, and revealed the action of his colleagues in the mediation of concepts to the blind student. In Study 2, willing to know teacher Joana’s opinion about co-teaching service, two semi-structured interviews were performed before and after it, which were transcribed and analyzed with the support of the Discursive Textual Analysis technique. From its results, presented and discussed in categories, namely: Knowledge about co-teaching and Characteristics and requirements of co-teaching, it is worth highlighting that the regular classroom educator agreed that, in addition to having expanded her knowledge about the service, she also improved as a teacher and finally became acquainted with and lived school inclusion. In spite of the limitations of the research, since analyzed and discussed only a single pedagogical practice, based on the results obtained, we may infer that this collaborative action-research brought about positive changes in the context and learning process of the students directly and indirectly involved, as well as improved the professional practice of the teacher regarding co-teaching and related subjects in a way that we dare to assume that she started having more favorable social attitudes towards school inclusion.