Professores como agentes de prevenção do abuso sexual infantil: avaliação de um programa de capacitação
Brino, Rachel de Faria
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The topic of this study is primary and secondary child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention in the educational area. The study goals involved planning, implementation and assessment of an intervention program in which teachers acted as CSA prevention agents. The first study step was the program planning based on others experiences described in the literature. Secondly, the program was implemented with 101 pre-school teachers in São Carlos, Brazil, 2.918 children (teachers students aged 4-6 years), and 2.732 children s family members. The program was implemented twice, with 52 and 49 teachers in the first and second time, respectively. Each group was divided into three sub-groups in order to receive the intervention. The program involved a theoretical section with teachers and a workshop conducted by teachers with children and family members. The third part involved the program assessment. Indicators of Sexual Abuse (IAS) data was obtained from 101 teachers at three different moments: before to the intervention, in the middle and at the end of the intervention. Teachers Drill on Child Abuse Identification data was obtained before and after the intervention. IAS and Family Members Drill on Child Abuse Identification data was obtained from 101 family members before and after the workshops conducted by teachers. The Drill on Self-Protective Skills Acquisition for Children data was obtained from 96 children before and after workshops conducted by teachers. IAS teachers results showed that they increased their knowledge about CSA specific symptoms. However, no changes in teachers knowledge about CSA nonspecific symptoms were observed. There was an increase in the percentage of appropriate answers from teachers in Teachers Drill on Child Abuse Identification. Family members IAS results showed no changes in their knowledge about CSA specific or non-specific symptoms. After the workshops, there was an increase in the percentage of appropriate answers by family members in Family Members Drill on Child Abuse Identification and children s performance in the Drill on Self-Protective Skills Acquisition for Children. In order to assess the impact of the program in the community, the number of CSA cases notified were identified from 2002 to 2005, in São Carlos. The data obtained showed an increase of CSA cases notified after the program, as well as an increase of reported cases involving young children s victimization. Simultaneously with the program, the teachers received consultation on how to identify CSA suspected cases in their schools. When sexual abuse suspicion was confirmed, the case was reported by teachers. In general, the program s assessment had an important impact in the schools and community as well. The need to plan and assess CSA preventive actions in others sectors of society is discussed.